Powell's Taekwondo Center

Powell's Taekwondo Center

1441 A. Franquette Ave.
Concord, CA 94520


Self Control
Indomitable Spirit

Student Center

Children have to be educated, but they have also to be left to educate themselves.
~Abbé Dimnet, Art of Thinking (1928)

Home study is an integral part to any martial arts training. In order to progress and sharpen one's martial arts skills, learning and being a student should not cease upon leaving the teaching environment. It has been proven that people who study the same material in different locations have higher retention rates, and those people who are tested on material keep the information for longer. The student center contains information required for testing, curriculum and terminology to support and supplement class teachings. Use the resources in the Student Center to help guide you in your home study.

Tenants of Taekwondo

Rank: White, Yellow Belts
  1. Courtesy
  2. Integrity
  3. Perseverance
  4. Self Control
  5. Indomitable Spirit

Ethical Rules

Rank: Green, Blue Belts
  1. Loyalty to Nation
  2. Obedience to Parents
  3. Confidence in Friends
  4. Never Retreat from Enemy Attack
  5. Refrain from the Senseless Killing of All Living Things

Student Oath

Rank: Red Belt
  1. I shall observe the Tenants of Taekwondo and the Ethical Rules
  2. I shall respect all instructors and seniors
  3. I will never misuse Tae Kwon Do
  4. I will be a champion of freedom and justice
  5. I will build a more peaceful world

Theory of Power

Rank: Black Belt (1st Dan)
  1. Reaction Force
  2. Concentration
  3. Equilibrium
  4. Breath Control
  5. Speed
  6. Mass

Composition of Taekwondo

Rank: Black Belt (2nd Dan)
  1. Basic Techniques
  2. Forms
  3. Sparring
  4. Breaking
  5. Attitude


Poomsae, Tul, and Hyung are some of the terminologies we use for patterns or forms, in the Korean Arts. Poomsae is a very strong and important part of our Taekwondo training. It is a necessary repetition in becoming a complete martial artist. Learning these various fundamental steps of defensive blocks, jumps, stances, turns, yells, and strikes with the hands and feet are of great benefit to our martial arts training, and lives.

Palgwae Il Jang

KEON (Heaven, light)
Keon is the first of the eight Palgwae, Keon is the creative force which inhabits all physical forces. Keon teaches us to be like the constantly changing universe, creative, active and diligent. Students should consider this concept as you perform this form, and allow it to influence the styling of your movements.

Palgwae Yi Jang

TAE (Joyfullness/lake)
The 2nd Palgwae is Tae, Tae is the principle of joyfulness and manifests thought a clear and relaxed mind full of positive thoughts. This form should be performed gently but forcefully, with ease and fluidity. You should not be struggling against you limitations, but living fully within them.

Palgwe Sam Jang

RI (Fire, Sun)
The principle of Ri is expressed thought enthusiasm in practice. Man needs fire to survive, however fire can have catastrophic results. The movements of fire are that of flickering energy with an unpredictable pace and continuous movement. Movements of this form should emulate the qualities of fire, with a variety of quickness and strength, while always maintaining complete control.

Palgwe Sah Jang

JIN (Thunder)
Noise without substance, the principle of Jin is symbolized by thunder, and is expressed as bravery and steadfastness. This principle suggests that in the face of danger and fear we should act calmly and bravely.

Palgwae Oh Jang

SEON (Wind)
Substance without noise, the principle of Seon is symbolized by wind. Wind changes directions and force without warning, therefore the principle of the form is that of contrasts. The actions of this form should at times be as gentle as a breeze, and at times as forceful as a storm. However you must keep a balance between these contrasts thought the entire form.

Palgwae Yook Jang

GAM (Water)
The principle of Gam is symbolized by water, liquid, and formless. Water flows around and absorbs all things. Gam teaches us that with self-confidence we can overcome all difficulties and hardships we encounter in life. Performer this form with fluidity, and the understanding that each action is exactly what is needed for the particular situation.

Palgwae Chil Jang

GAN (Mountain)
Immoveable mountain, the principle of Gan is symbolized by mountain, stable and majestic. Learn from the stability of a mountain and do not act in a hasty manner. You must learn where and when to stop. Perform the form with this in mind, and keeping all movement majestic and deserving of praise.

Palgwae Pal Jang

GON (Earth)
Gon is the 8th and last principle of palgwae and symbolizes earth. The Earth is where the creative force of heaven and light are realized into physical form. The earth is that from which all life springs, matures, and dies. Pal Jang is the last round in your first step of training, and is a stepping stone to the way of a dan-holder. Review the fundamental actions and concepts found in the pervious forms. From this platform more advanced forms can be studied.

One Step Sparring

All One-Steps must end with a guarding block.
  1. Move Right. Right middle punch to opponent's solar plexus. Left high punch to face.
  2. Step back with left foot while executing inside middle knife hand block. Execute reverse neck chop to opponent's throat, sliding in if necessary.
  3. Move right. Right front snap kick to solar plexus.
  4. Move left. Right roundhouse kick (street style, with toes curled back) to solar plexus.
  5. Move right. Left sidekick to solar plexus.
  6. Move right. Right groin rake. Execute strike to face with right hand as you land. Execute strike to face with right hand as you land.
  7. Step back with right foot while executing left inside middle block. Back kick with right foot to opponent's ribs.
  8. Move left. Right street roundhouse kick to solar plexus, kick their knee out as you lower your foot to the ground. Opponent falls. Execute left roundhouse kick if their head is high, or left foot axe kick if their head is low.
  9. Step forward with left foot (outside their punch) while executing left inside middle block. Turn clockwise, placing right foot behind opponent's forward leg. Execute low back elbow strike to kidney, high back elbow strike to the back of opponent's neck. Bring right arm over opponent's head. Sweep them to the ground. Finish with a strike to fallen opponent.
  10. Move left while executing right outside middle block, grabbing opponent's arm. Execute street roundhouse to solar plexus. Turn opponent's arm clockwise and down, bending them over. Move in, execute left downward elbow strike to back of neck or shoulder.
  11. Use right foot and in-to-out axe kick to block punch. Step back to position yourself at a 45 degree angle to opponent. Drop to ground, execute sweep (like a hook kick parallel to the ground) with right foot to knock opponent to ground. Finish with a strike to the fallen opponent.
  12. Step in right, while executing left outside middle block. Right elbow strike to opponent's face or neck. Execute right back hammer fist while stepping back with right foot. Right foot wheel kick to head.
  13. Right jump front snap kick to head or solar plexus while moving to right.
  14. If kicking to the head, left palm pressing block to lower opponent's arm. Right jump roundhouse kick to head. Otherwise, leave their arm where it is (so it won't get in the way) and execute right jump roundhouse kick to solar plexus.
  15. Long step with left foot outside punch. Execute right jump sidekick to kidneys.
  16. Step outside punch with left foot while executing right outside middle block and grabbing opponent's arm. Left elbow smash/strike to back of opponent's neck/head, followed quickly by left side elbow strike. Lift opponent's arm with your right hand, rotating clockwise under it, dropping them to the ground. Pin opponent's elbow to the ground, and execute strike to their face.
  17. Move left. Right street roundhouse kick to solar plexus, followed by right turn around roundhouse kick to solar plexus. Place hands on ground. Execute scissor (left foot high in front of opponent, right foot low behind their leg) to knock them to the ground. Finish with left axe kick or right turnover roundhouse kick to opponent's head (while on the ground).
  18. Move across to the right while executing right vertical punch to the face. Left foot is back at end of this move. Execute 360 back kick (with right foot) followed by 360 wheel kick (with right foot). NOTE: Opponent must move back with each kick. End with a guarding block.
  19. Step outside (left) execute left inside middle to the right outside middle block/pass (right hand grabs their arm at end). Left arm stays up to execute reverse drop to bridge of nose. Left hand slaps/pushes opponent's face away. Left hand moves up to forehead (if doing it real, put fingers in opponent's eyes to do this move) and pulls opponent's head down and back, knocking them down while holding onto their arm with right hand. When opponent is down, lift their arm with right arm to expose floating rib. Stomp on opponent's floating rib.
  20. Step forward with right foot while executing simultaneous right vertical punch to face and left outside middle block with knifehand. Follow quickly with left neck chip. Execute right punch to solar plexus, left knife hand strike to solar plexus, right knuckle strike to temple. Hook right foot behind opponent's forward leg and press forward with your right shin to knock them down. Execute right side kick to fallen opponent's face. NOTE: all strikes must be executed quickly, without pause in between them; hands move in continuous circular motion to accomplish this.

Ranking Requirements

Rank Belt Minimum Time
One Steps Hapkido
10th Gup White N/A N/A N/A N/A
9th Gup Yellow 1/20 Kibon 1 N/A Releases 1-5
8th Gup Sr. Yellow 1/20 Palgue 1 1-5 Releases
7th Gup Green 3/36 Palgue 1-2 1-5 Single Sides
6th Gup Sr. Green 4/48 Palgue 1-3 1-10 Single Sides
5th Gup Blue 4/48 Palgue 1-4 1-10 Cross Wrist Grabs
4th Gup Sr. Blue 4/48 Palgue 1-5 1-15 Cross Wrist Grabs
3rd Gup Red 4/48 Palgue 1-6 1-15 Defense Against Punch
2nd Gup Sr. Red 6/72 Palgue 1-7 1-20 Defense Against Punch
1st Gup Adv. Red 6/72 Palgue 1-8 1-20 Two Hand Grabs
1st Dan Black
1st Degree
6 to 12 Months Koryo, Chung-Moo 5 Self Defense & 5 Knife Techniques Master's Discretion
2nd Dan Black
2nd Degree
2 Years Minimum Kuem-Kang, Kwan-Gae, Po-Eun, Gae-Baek Assist in 20 Classes Master's Discretion
3rd Dan Black
3rd Degree
3 Years Minimum Tae-Baek, Eui-Am, Choon-Jang, Sam-Il 1st Dan Hapkido Master's Discretion
4th Dan Black
4th Degree
4 Years Minimum Yoo-Sin, Choi-Young,Yon-Gae Master's Discretion Master's Discretion
5th Dan Black
5th Degree
5 Years Minimum Ui-Ji, Moon-Moo, So-San Master's Discretion Master's Discretion
6th Dan Black
6th Degree
6 Years Minimum Se-Jong, Tong-Il Master's Discretion Master's Discretion

Korean Terminology


one hah nah
two doul
three set
four net
five da-sote
six yo-sote
seven ill-gope
eight yeo-doul
nine ah-hope
ten yeol


first il
second ee
third sahm
fourth sah
fifth oh
sixth yuk
seventh chil
eighth pahl
ninth goo
tenth ship


master instructor sah boo nim
black belt yu dan cha
student hak saeng
school do jang
uniform do boak
line up jong lee
attention cha reeut
bow kyung ay
ready stance june be
begin shee jak
end bah roh
rest shi-o
bow to the master sah boon nim kay kyung nay
salute the flag gook ghee ay dae hah yo kyung nay
thank you gham sah haam nee da
class dismissed hai san


font kick ahp cha ghee
roundhouse kick doal leu cha ghee
side kick yup cha ghee
back kick dweet cha ghee
axe kick naeryeo cha ghee
hook kick ahp hoo ree ghee
spin kick dweet hoo ree ghee
turn around kick doal ah cha ghee
sliding forward kick bu chyo cha ghee
double kick tah dahk


stance saw ghee
horse stance joo choom saw ghee
front stance ahp goo saw ghee
back stance dweet goo bee saw ghee
walking stance ahp saw ghee
twist stance goh ah saw ghee
mountain stance sahn tul saw ghee
dragon stance young saw ghee
cat stance go yang ee saw ghee
kicking stance bahl cha ghee june be
crane stance hahk da ri saw ghee